“I have been doing”と”I had been doing”

違い、説明できますか? 何となく使い分けているけれど明確な違いを説明できない、そんな方は結構多いと思います。難しくないので是非マスターしましょう!

大過去という考え方や、”have done”と”had done”の違いを理解していることが前提となっています。詳しくは以下のリンクをご覧ください。

“I have done”と”I had done”

“I have been doing”

“I have been doing”は現在完了進行形と呼ばれる用法です。詳しくは以下のリンクをご覧ください。

“I have done”と”I have been doing”

“I had been doing”

“I have been doing”は過去完了進行形と呼ばれる用法です。”I had done”の2つ目の意味である「大過去から過去にわたる期間」に似ていますが、進行形であるため、行為そのものに焦点を当てた表現となっています。

また、”I am doing”と同様に、状態動詞が”I had been doing”の形を取ることはほとんどありません。動作動詞と状態動詞について、詳しくは以下のリンクをご覧ください。

“I am doing”と”I do”

  • Although she had been learning English for years, she could not write in English at will.
    (She was first learning English and second could not write in English at will.)
  • He had been playing the online game whose service ended the other day.
    (He was first playing the online game and second the game ended its service.)
  • The number of COVID-19 cases had been increasing until the government decided to lock down the major cities.
    (The number was first increasing and second the government decided lock-down.)
  • The government had been planning to introduce basic income and cut back on public health care system, which met a severe criticism from the public.
    (The government was first planning and second a severe criticism came.)
  • Frogs had been disappearing and night became silent.
    (Frogs were first disappearing and second night became silent.)
  • Black hackers started to flex their muscles to know that more and more companies had been shifting to E-commerce.
    (Companies were first shifting to E-commerce and second black hackers started to be prepared for work.)

結局どう違うの?

現在に関係しているかが大きな違いです。図を見ると、”I have been doing”は現在に関与しており、焦点は過去を含んだ現在にあります。一方、”I had been doing”は現在に関与しておらず、焦点は大過去を含んだ過去にあります。

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